PEMAKNAAN ORANG TUA YANG KEHILANGAN ANAK DALAM PERISTIWA KEKERASAN POLITIK: STUDI FENOMENOLOGI

Stefany Valentia, Winarini Wilman D. Mansoer

Abstract


Abstract – This study aims to discover the experience of parents who lost their child as a result from political violence in 1998 and to outline their meaning-making process after the loss of their child. The study was conducted using qualitative method with phenomenological approach. Participants were parents of an undergraduate student who became the victim of the incident (some refer them as ‘Reformation Heroes’), approached through convenience sampling. Data were collected by using in-depth interviews. Several themes elicited from the interview results in both parents: sorrow and resentment; refusal of loss; loss of happiness, warmth, enthusiasm, and hope; detachment from social life; social support; justice effort; and faith. Analytical findings showed that eventhough the incident has occured more than 20 years ago, participants were still going through complicated grief. Parents construe their child’s death as an ongoing sacrifice effort for justice, hence they are commited to end it by demanding legal justice.

 

Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami pengalaman dan pemaknaan orang tua yang anaknya meninggal dalam peristiwa kekerasan politik pada tahun 1998. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode kualitatif dan pendekatan fenomenologi. Partisipan merupakan orang tua dari mahasiswa yang menjadi korban pada peristiwa tersebut (sering disebut sebagai Pahlawan Reformasi) dan partisipan dipilih berdasarkan ketersediaan sumber daya peneliti. Pengambilan data dilakukan melalui proses wawancara mendalam. Dari hasil wawancara dengan partisipan, ditemukan beberapa tema dalam pengalaman dan pemaknaan ayah maupun ibu, yaitu kesedihan mendalam; kemarahan yang besar; tidak menerima kematian anak; kehilangan kebahagiaan, kehangatan, semangat, dan harapan; menarik diri dari kehidupan sosial; bangkit karena dukungan sosial; memperjuangkan keadilan hukum; serta keimanan. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa meskipun sudah 20 tahun lebih berlalu sejak peristiwa kematian anak, partisipan masih terus mengalami perasaan berduka yang kompleks. Kedua orang tua memaknai kematian anak mereka sebagai pengorbanan dan perjuangan yang belum selesai. Oleh karena itu, mereka berkomitmen untuk menyelesaikan perjuangan tersebut dengan menuntut keadilan hukum.


Keywords


child loss; parents meaning-making; political violence; Semanggi I tragedy; kematian anak; pemaknaan orang tua; kekerasan politik; tragedi Semanggi I

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.24854/jpu02019-249

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